Cervical Spine Anatomy
The spine can be divided into 4 parts: cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral region. The cervical spine comprises of the first 7 vertebrae, which form the neck.
Thoracic Spine Anatomy
The thoracic spine is the central part of the spine, also called the dorsal spine, which runs from the base of the neck to the bottom of your rib cage. The thoracic spine provides the flexibility that holds the body upright and protects the organs of the chest.
Lumbar Spine Anatomy
Back pain or backache is the pain felt in the back that may originate from damage to the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems experienced by most people at some time in their life.
Herniated disc also known as slipped disc or bulging disc is a condition in which the outer layer of the intervertebral disc is damaged causing the soft gelatinous material from the center to protrude through it.
Common neck pain may occur from muscle strain or tension from everyday activities including poor posture, prolonged use of a computer and sleeping in an uncomfortable position.
The term osteoporosis means porous bones. Osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder characterized by progressive loss of bone mass making the bones increasingly weak and prone to fractures.
Spine trauma is defined as an injury or damage to any region of the spine. The spine extends from the neck to the lower back and consists of the vertebral bones which surround and protect the spinal cord.
Spinal Degenerative Disease
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae.
Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity, making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”.
Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramina. Each bone in the vertebral column has a central opening through which the spinal cord passes, and other openings called neural foramina through which nerve roots branch out.
Sciatica is a painful condition caused by the irritation of the sciatic nerve which begins in the lower back and runs down through the buttocks into the legs.
Spondylolisthesis is the displacement of the vertebral disc from the spinal column. Outward (forward) displacement is termed as anterolisthesis and inward (backward) displacement is termed as retrolisthesis.
Vertebral Compression Fractures
Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures. Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed.
A spine tumor is the abnormal growth of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord. Tumors can either be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). Tumors that begin in the spine are called primary spinal tumors.
Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, either to the left or to the right. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a type of scoliosis that occurs in children between 10 and 16 years of age.
Pediatric Spinal Surgery
Children may require spine surgery for various conditions such as abnormal spine curvature, deformities, inflammatory or infectious diseases, tumors, vascular malformations, and trauma.
Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery
Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) is the latest technology available to perform spinal surgeries through small, less than one-inch-long incisions.
Cervical microdiscectomy is a surgical procedure performed to treat herniated discs in the neck region. It involves excising the herniated part of the disc.
Laminectomy refers to the removal or cutting of the lamina (roof) of the vertebral bones to provide space for the nerves to exit from the spine.
A lumbar microdiscectomy is usually indicated for patients with herniated discs in the lower back, who have not found adequate pain relief with conservative treatment. Microsurgical techniques are used to gain access to the lumbar spine and only a small portion of the herniated disc that compresses the spinal nerve is removed.
The goal of this surgery is to remove all or part of the herniated disc pressing on the nerve root or spinal cord in the thoracic spine.
Lumbar laminectomy, also known as decompression laminectomy, is a spinal surgery performed to relieve excess pressure on the spinal nerve(s) in the lumbar (lower back) region.
Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) surgery is a surgical technique that involves the removal of a damaged intervertebral disc and the insertion of a bone graft into the disc space created between the two adjoining vertebrae.
Percutaneous instrumentation involves passing instruments through the skin to stabilize the spine. The instruments are available in different shapes/sizes and are usually made of stainless steel or titanium.
Intra-operative Nerve Monitoring
Intra-operative nerve monitoring refers to the evaluation of function of the nerves and spinal cord during spine surgery.
Spinal Cord Stimulator
A spinal cord stimulator is a device that sends electrical impulses to the areas of the spinal cord causing pain and interferes with the transmission of pain signals to the brain.
Spinal decompression is a treatment to relieve pressure on one or many “pinched nerves” in the spinal column. It can be achieved either surgically or by non-surgical methods.
Spine Deformity Surgery
There are different surgical approaches to repair spine deformities and the choice of the approach is based on the factors such as the type of deformity, location of the curvature, ease of access to the deformity.
A minimally invasive treatment called facet injection offers symptomatic relief from back pain caused by inflammation of the facet joints; however, this is not a permanent solution for the condition.
Lumbar epidurals are injections to treat and relieve low back pain. A lumbar epidural involves injecting a local anesthetic and an anti-inflammatory steroid into the epidural space of the lower spine (lower back) to reduce inflammation causing the pain.
A cervical epidural is an injection of medication into the epidural space in the lower section of the cervical region to provide relief from pain or inflammation affecting the neck and upper back.
Spine injection is a nonsurgical treatment modality recommended for treatment of chronic back pain.