Accessibility Tools

Foot & Ankle Anatomy

What is the Normal Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle?

The foot and ankle form complex joints that are involved in movement and providing stability and balance to the body. The foot and ankle consist of 26 bones, 33 joints, and many muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

Bones of the Ankle

The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot and is composed of three bones: the tibia, fibula, and talus. The tibia or shinbone and fibula or calf bone are bones of the lower leg, which articulate with the talus or ankle bone, enabling up and down movement of the foot.

Read More

Foot & Ankle Conditions

  • Common Toe Deformities

    Toes are the digits in your foot and are associated with walking, providing balance, weight-bearing and other activities. A variety of toe deformities occur in children’s feet.

Foot & Ankle Procedures

  • Ankle Sprain

    A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the ankle joint, or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump.

  • Achilles Tendon Rupture

    The Achilles tendon which connects the calf muscle to the heel, ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping.

  • Plantar Fasciitis

    Plantar fasciitis refers to the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that is present at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toes and forms the arch of your foot.

  • Ankle Fractures

    An ankle fracture is a painful condition where there is a break in one or more bones forming the ankle joint. The ankle joint is stabilized by different ligaments and soft tissues, which may also be injured during an ankle fracture.

  • Foot and Ankle Trauma

    Foot and ankle trauma refers to injuries that most commonly occur during sports, exercise or any other physical activity. Trauma may be a result of accidents, poor training practices or use of improper gear.

  • Achillles Tendinitis

    Achilles tendinitis is the inflammation and irritation to the Achilles tendon, a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects your calf muscles to the heel bone.

  • Nail Bed Injuries

    Nail bed injuries such as crush and avulsion injuries commonly occur when the nail bed gets compressed between the hard nail on top and the toe bone below it.

  • Foot Fracture

    Trauma and repeated stress can cause fractures in the foot. Extreme force is required to fracture the bones in the hindfoot. The most common type of foot fracture is a stress fracture that occurs when repeated activities produce small cracks in the bones.

  • Bunion Surgery

    There are many surgical options to treat a bunion but the common goal is to realign the joint, correct the deformity, and to relieve pain and discomfort. Osteotomy is a common type of bunion surgery that involves surgical cutting and realignment of the toe joint.

  • Ankle Arthroscopy

    Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.

  • Total Ankle Joint Replacement

    Ankle joint replacement, also known as total ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and immobility due to severe end-stage arthritis that has not responded to non-surgical treatments. The goal of ankle joint replacement surgery is to eliminate your pain and increase the mobility of your ankle joint.

  • Flatfoot Reconstruction

    This is a surgical procedure to treat flatfoot or pes planus, a condition in which the foot does not have a normal arch when standing. The primary objectives of flatfoot reconstruction are reduction of pain and restoration of function and appearance.

  • Hammertoe Surgery

    Surgical correction is indicated for severe cases of hammertoe. It may include a tendon transfer procedure to pull the bent joint down and straighten the toe or a joint resection or fusion for stiff or fixed hammertoes.

  • Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery

    Minimally invasive foot surgery (MIFS) uses the latest advanced technology to treat foot and ankle pain caused by a variety of conditions. Special surgical instruments, devices, and advanced imaging techniques are used to visualize and perform the surgery through small incisions.

  • Nail Surgery

    Nail excision is a simple procedure that involves the removal of a broken or infected nail. The treatment aims at restoring the normal anatomy of the nail and the surrounding structures.

  • Laser Surgery

    Laser surgery uses laser beams, high intensity light of a specific wavelength that can be focused into a narrow beam, to treat or correct various conditions and abnormalities.

  • 3D Foot Scanning Technology

    Foot and ankle problems can now be diagnosed using a 3D scanning technology. As opposed to the traditional 2D scans, the technology helps doctors to view the foot and ankle in 3D, and how it functions in a full weight bearing position.

  • Ankle Joint Replacement

    Ankle joint replacement, also known as total ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and immobility due to severe end-stage arthritis that has not responded to non-surgical treatments.

  • Treatment of Foot and Ankle Sports Injuries

    Injuries to the foot and ankle are common while playing sports. Common sports injuries include sprains and strains, ankle fractures and Achilles tendinitis. Various nonsurgical and surgical treatments are available depending on the type and severity of the injury.

  • Ankle Ligament Reconstruction

    Surgical intervention to reconstruct the injured ligament may be considered if you have a high degree of instability and have failed to respond to non-surgical treatments. The procedure may be performed using a minimally invasive arthroscopic technique.

  • Internal and External Fixation of Foot and Ankle Fractures

    Foot and ankle fractures are breaks or cracks in any bone of your foot and ankle joint. Fixation of fractures is a surgical method of reconnecting the broken or cracked bones and fixing them in the correct place using orthopedic hardware.

  • Achilles Tendon Repair

    Surgical repair of a torn Achilles tendon involves stitching the torn ends together or reinforcing the tendon with a graft. The procedure is recommended for competitive athletes, those who perform physical work, or in instances where the tendon re-ruptures.

  • Ankle Instability Surgery

    Ankle instability surgery involves the repair or reconstruction of the injured ankle ligaments. It is recommended when you have a high degree of ankle instability and have failed to respond to non-surgical treatments.

  • American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
  • American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
  • Arthroscopy Association of North America
  • National Association of Secretaries of State
  • American Podiatric Medical Association